Neues zu Materie und Geist

  • Small changes to organ procurement system could lead to more life-saving transplants
    Slight changes to the system for allocating deceased-donor kidneys could result in higher rates of organ procurement and lead to more kidney transplants across the country, according to new research. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Archaeological research on social inequality published
    The origins of social inequality might lie in the remnants of ancient Eurasia's agricultural societies, according to a new article. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Like a baby: The vicious cycle of childhood obesity and snoring
    Scientists looked at the relationships among maternal snoring, childhood snoring and children's metabolic characteristics -- including body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance, which reflects future risk for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease -- in approximately 1,100 children followed from gestation through early adolescence. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Flu vaccine prevents hospitalization in children, study shows
    Children vaccinated against influenza are significantly less likely to experience serious complications from the virus that could land them in hospital, new research has found. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • A photosynthetic organism’s ‚Water World‘
    Following the path of radicals and being able to identify many damaged residues because of incredibly accurate, expeditious and sensitive mass spectrometry, three scientists studied the great granddaddy of all photosynthetic organisms -- a strain of cyanobacteria -- to develop the first experimental map of that organism's water world. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Interstellar space probes: Where’s the brakes?
    With a miniaturized space probe capable of being accelerated to a quarter of the speed of light, we could reach Alpha Centauri, our nearest star, in 20 to 50 years. However, without a mechanism to slow it down, the space probe could only collect data from the star and its ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • A sub-desert savanna spread across Madrid 14 million years ago
    The current landscape of Madrid city and its vicinity was really different 14 million years ago. A semi-desert savanna has been inferred for the center of the Iberian Peninsula in the middle Miocene. This ecosystem was characterized by a very arid tropical climatic regime with up to ten months of ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Taking a spin on plasma space tornadoes with NASA observations
    Tornado-like swirls of space plasma create tumultuous boundaries in the near-Earth environment, letting dangerous high-energy particles slip into near Earth space, new NASA mission results show. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • New computational method provides optimized design of wind up toys
    A team of leading computer scientists has developed a novel computational system to aid the design and fabrication of wind-up toys, focusing on automating the intricate interior machinery responsible for the toys' wind-up motion. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Making it easier to recycle plastics
    Researchers report new approaches could dramatically increase the amount of plastic waste that can be successfully recycled. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Drones could help crop management take off, research shows
    Initial results of an ongoing study show that aerial imagery produced by multi-spectral sensors as well as less-expensive digital cameras may improve accuracy and efficiency of plant stand assessment in cotton. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Decrease in sunshine, increase in rickets
    Britain's increasing cloudiness during the summer could be an important reason for the mysterious increase in rickets among British children over the past few decades, suggests new research. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Mathematician’s study of ’swarmalators‘ could direct future science
    How does the Japanese tree frog figure into the latest work of a noted mathematician? As it turns out, quite prominently. Researchers used the curious mating ritual of male Japanese tree frogs as inspiration for their exploration of 'swarmalators' -- their term for systems in which both synchronization and swarming ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • When to fish: Timing matters for fish that migrate to reproduce
    A new study points to yet another human factor that is hampering the ability of fish to reproduce: the timing of our fishing seasons. The study considers how the timing of fishing efforts might disproportionately target certain fish and change the life history patterns of entire populations. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Tailor-made temperature-dependent thermal conductivity via interparticle constriction
    Managing heat is a major challenge to meet future demands for a sustainable use of our energy resources. This requires materials, which can be custom-designed to exhibit specific temperature-dependent thermal transport properties to become integrated into thermal switches, transistors, or diodes. Common crystalline and amorphous materials are not suitable, owing ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Structural rearrangements governing Johari-Goldstein relaxations in metallic glasses
    The Johari-Goldstein secondary (β) relaxations are an intrinsic feature of supercooled liquids and glasses. They are crucial to many properties of glassy materials, but the underlying mechanisms are still not established. In a model metallic glass, we study the atomic rearrangements by molecular dynamics simulations at time scales of up ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Ultrafast direct electron transfer at organic semiconductor and metal interfaces
    The ability to control direct electron transfer can facilitate the development of new molecular electronics, light-harvesting materials, and photocatalysis. However, control of direct electron transfer has been rarely reported, and the molecular conformation–electron dynamics relationships remain unclear. We describe direct electron transfer at buried interfaces between an organic polymer semiconductor ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Two-dimensional limit of crystalline order in perovskite membrane films
    Long-range order and phase transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems—such as magnetism, superconductivity, and crystallinity—have been important research topics for decades. The issue of 2D crystalline order has reemerged recently, with the development of exfoliated atomic crystals. Understanding the dimensional limit of crystalline phases, with different types of bonding and synthetic ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Strained hybrid perovskite thin films and their impact on the intrinsic stability of perovskite solar cells
    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (OIHP) solar cells have achieved comparable efficiencies to those of commercial solar cells, although their instability hinders their commercialization. Although encapsulation techniques have been developed to protect OIHP solar cells from external stimuli such as moisture, oxygen, and ultraviolet light, understanding of the origin of the intrinsic ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Measuring quantitative effects of methylation on transcription factor-DNA binding affinity
    Methylation of CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) dinucleotides is a common epigenetic mark that influences gene expression. The effects of methylation on transcription factor (TF) binding are unknown for most TFs and, even when known, such knowledge is often only qualitative. In reality, methylation sensitivity is a quantitative effect, just as changes to ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Reactive oxygen species leave a damage trail that reveals water channels in Photosystem II
    Photosystem II (PSII), a unique membrane-bound oxidoreductase, catalyzes light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Although high-resolution structures of PSII are known, the exact path of the substrate water molecules to the catalytic Mn4CaO5 center within the PSII complex remains poorly understood. PSII produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), responsible for ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Extreme enrichment in atmospheric 15N15N
    Molecular nitrogen (N2) comprises three-quarters of Earth’s atmosphere and significant portions of other planetary atmospheres. We report a 19 per mil () excess of 15N15N in air relative to a random distribution of nitrogen isotopes, an enrichment that is 10 times larger than what isotopic equilibration in the atmosphere allows. ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Progesterone to fight preterm birth
    A new study provides additional support for treatment with vaginal progesterone to reduce the risk of preterm birth, neonatal complications and infant death in pregnant women with a short cervix. A shortened cervix is the most powerful predictor of preterm birth. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • When oxygen disappeared, early marine animals really started evolving
    Living in low-oxygen waters eventually led to surprising innovations in animals ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Seagrass is a key fishing ground globally
    New research demonstrates that seagrass meadows are important fishing grounds all around the globe. The work highlights that there is an urgent need to start appreciating and understanding this role to be able to build more sustainable fisheries. A study examines the global extent to which these underwater meadows support ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • What grosses out a chimpanzee? The origins of disgust
    Chimps show increased latencies to feed, and tendencies to maintain greater distances from possible contaminants and/or outright refusals to consume food in test conditions, hinting at the origins of disgust in humans. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Asthma attacks reduced in tree-lined urban neighborhoods
    People living in polluted urban areas are far less likely to be admitted to hospital with asthma when there are lots of trees in their neighborhood, a new study has found. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • First-graders fitter than expected
    Childhood obesity is often attributed to a lack of exercise. So what about sports among elementary school students? Scientists have pursued this question and collected the results of fitness tests for first-year students over a period of one decade. Their study shows that students did not lose their strength. Speed ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Protein key to cancer cells ability to spread identified
    Scientists have made a discovery that could reduce the spread of cancer by hindering a protein that binds cancer cells together and allows them to invade tissues. The groundbreaking study identified a protein, known as cadherin-22, as a potential factor in cancer metastasis, or spread, and showed that hindering it ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Plant respiration could become a bigger feedback on climate than expected
    New research suggests that plant respiration is a larger source of carbon emissions than previously thought, and warns that as the world warms, this may reduce the ability of Earth's land surface to absorb emissions due to fossil fuel burning. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • To reduce risk of crashing, pick roads with wide shoulders and high speed limits
    A solid median, wide shoulders, minimal hills -- and a high speed limit? Researchers explore freeway features that minimize crash risk. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Using eDNA to identify the breeding habitat of endangered species
    Using wide-ranging eDNA analysis combined with traditional collection survey methods, researchers have identified the breeding site of critically endangered fish species Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • ‚Ion billiards‘ cue novel material synthesis method
    A team of researchers has developed a novel material synthesis method called proton-driven ion introduction (PDII) which utilizes a phenomenon similar to 'ion billiards.' The new method could pave the way for creating numerous new materials, thus drastically advancing materials sciences. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • The future of cell culture: A new continuous bioprocess developed
    A revolutionary technique to allow the continuous production and collection of cells has been developed by scientists. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Link between obesity and cancer is not widely recognized
    A new study has shown that the majority of people in the United Kingdom do not understand the connection between weight issues and cancer. Obesity is associated with thirteen types of cancer, including those of the breast, kidney, bowel, and womb. However, after surveying 3293 adults, taken as representative of ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Hydrogen fuel from water by harnessing red and near-infrared regions of sunlight
    Scientists have synthesized a compound that absorbs near-infrared light to produce hydrogen from water. The compound contains three ruthenium atoms connected by an organic molecule. The absorbed light stimulates electrons to 'jump' into orbitals that do not exist in other, similar compounds. This is the first successful use of infrared ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Brain astrocytes linked to Alzheimer’s disease
    Astrocytes, the supporting cells of the brain, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study. This is the first time researchers discovered a direct association between astrocytes and AD. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
    The buildup of plaque in the heart's arteries is an unfortunate part of aging. But by studying the genetic makeup of people who maintain clear arteries into old age, researchers have identified a possible genetic basis for coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as potential new opportunities to prevent it. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • This scientist wants your help tracking mosquitoes—and all you need is a cellphone
    Q&A with Stanford University bioengineer Manu Prakash ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • European forests might not be realizing their full potential
    European forest managers can have their cake and eat it, because according to a new study maximizing timber production in a forest does not necessarily have to come at a cost of reduced species diversity or the capacity to regulate climate change by the same forest. However most European forests ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Employees want to sit down less and walk more during work days
    Desk-based workers would like to spend less time sitting down and more time walking or doing physical activity as part of their working day, research suggests. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • When male voles drink alcohol, but their partner doesn’t, their relationship suffers
    Researchers find that the relationship between prairie vole couples suffers when the male has access to alcohol, but his female partner doesn't - similar to what has been observed in human couples. The researchers also found changes in a specific brain region in the male voles. The results could help ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Novel therapeutic target discovered for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer
    A new protein has been identified in a common subtype of breast cancer which can potentially offer more effective therapies for the future. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Risk of distracted driving predicted by age, gender, personality and driving frequency
    The first study of how personal traits affect driver distraction finds that young men, extroverted or neurotic people, and people who drive more often are more likely to report being distracted during driving, while older women and those who feel they could control their distracted behavior are less likely to ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • A popular tool to trace Earth’s oxygen history can give false positives
    If someone cries 'Eureka!' because it looks like oxygen appeared in Earth's ancient atmosphere long before the body of evidence indicated, be careful. If it was a chromium isotope system reading that caused the enthusiasm, it might need to be curbed. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Evaluation of novel hybrid membranes for carbon capture
    Hybrid materials known as mixed matrix membranes are considered a promising approach to capture carbon dioxide and mitigate against global warming. These materials are derived from a polymer combined with porous nanoparticles. We show that materials prepared using porous organic polymers are resilient to the acidic impurities present in industrial ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Transforming greenhouse gases: New ’supercatalyst‘ to recycle carbon dioxide and methane
    Engineers have developed a new and cost-effective catalyst to recycle two of the main causes behind climate change -- carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • New theory rewrites opening moments of Chernobyl disaster
    A brand-new theory of the opening moments during the Chernobyl disaster, the most severe nuclear accident in history, based on additional analysis. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Dog ownership linked to lower mortality rate
    A team of scientists have used national registries of more than 3.4 million Swedes aged 40 to 80 to study the association between dog ownership and cardiovascular health. Their study shows that dog owners had a lower risk of death due to cardiovascular disease or to other causes during the ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017
  • Anti-malaria drug shows promise as Zika virus treatment
    A medication used to prevent and treat malaria may also be effective for Zika virus, scientists have discovered. The drug, called chloroquine, has a long history of safe use during pregnancy, and is relatively inexpensive. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 17-11-2017