Science News

  • NASA’S OSIRIS-REx spacecraft slingshots past Earth
    NASA's asteroid sample return spacecraft successfully used Earth's gravity on Friday to slingshot itself on a path toward the asteroid Bennu, for a rendezvous next August. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Mechanism that underlies age-associated bone loss
    A major health problem in older people is age-associated osteoporosis -- the thinning of bone and the loss of bone density that increases the risk of fractures. Researchers have now detailed an underlying mechanism leading to that osteoporosis. When this mechanism malfunctions, progenitor cells stop creating bone-producing cells, and instead ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Two Group A Streptococcus genes linked to ‚flesh-eating‘ bacterial infections
    Group A Streptococcus bacteria cause illnesses ranging from mild nuisances like strep throat to life-threatening conditions such as flesh-eating disease, also known as necrotizing fasciitis. Life-threatening infections occur when the bacteria spread underneath the surface of the skin or throat and invade the underlying soft tissue. Researchers have found two ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Superadditivity of two quantum information resources
    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and a principal resource for quantum information processing. It is well known that in classical information theory, the addition of two classical information resources will not lead to any extra advantages. On the contrary, in quantum information, a spectacular ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Atomic-scale visualization of surface-assisted orbital order
    Orbital-related physics attracts growing interest in condensed matter research, but direct real-space access of the orbital degree of freedom is challenging. We report a first, real-space, imaging of a surface-assisted orbital ordered structure on a cobalt-terminated surface of the well-studied heavy fermion compound CeCoIn5. Within small tip-sample distances, the cobalt ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Inward H+ pump xenorhodopsin: Mechanism and alternative optogenetic approach
    Generation of an electrochemical proton gradient is the first step of cell bioenergetics. In prokaryotes, the gradient is created by outward membrane protein proton pumps. Inward plasma membrane native proton pumps are yet unknown. We describe comprehensive functional studies of the representatives of the yet noncharacterized xenorhodopsins from Nanohaloarchaea family ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • A customizable class of colloidal-quantum-dot spasers and plasmonic amplifiers
    Colloidal quantum dots are robust, efficient, and tunable emitters now used in lighting, displays, and lasers. Consequently, when the spaser—a laser-like source of high-intensity, narrow-band surface plasmons—was first proposed, quantum dots were specified as the ideal plasmonic gain medium for overcoming the significant intrinsic losses of plasmons. Many subsequent spasers, ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Borate esters: Simple catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of complex amides
    Chemical reactions for the formation of amide bonds are among the most commonly used transformations in organic chemistry, yet they are often highly inefficient. A novel protocol for amidation using a simple borate ester catalyst is reported. The process presents significant improvements over other catalytic amidation methods in terms of ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • New models for energy beam machining enable accurate generation of free forms
    We demonstrate that, despite differences in their nature, many energy beam controlled-depth machining processes (for example, waterjet, pulsed laser, focused ion beam) can be modeled using the same mathematical framework—a partial differential evolution equation that requires only simple calibrations to capture the physics of each process. The inverse problem can ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • A predictive framework for the design and fabrication of icephobic polymers
    Ice accretion remains a costly, hazardous concern worldwide. Icephobic coatings reduce the adhesion between ice and a surface. However, only a handful of the icephobic systems reported to date reduce the ice adhesion sufficiently for the facile and passive removal of ice, such as under its own weight or by ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • A variational approach to probing extreme events in turbulent dynamical systems
    Extreme events are ubiquitous in a wide range of dynamical systems, including turbulent fluid flows, nonlinear waves, large-scale networks, and biological systems. We propose a variational framework for probing conditions that trigger intermittent extreme events in high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems. We seek the triggers as the probabilistically feasible solutions of ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Stratified ubiquitination of RIG-I creates robust immune response and induces selective gene expression
    The activation of retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-I), an indispensable viral RNA sensor in mammals, is subtly regulated by ubiquitination. Although multiple ubiquitination sites at the amino terminus of RIG-I have been identified, their functional allocations in RIG-I activation remain elusive. We identified a stratified model for RIG-I amino-terminal ubiquitination, ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Enhancing the sensing capabilities of diamonds with quantum properties
    When a nitrogen atom is next to the space vacated by a carbon atom, it forms what is called a nitrogen-vacancy center. Now, researchers have shown how they can create more NV centers, which makes sensing magnetic fields easier, using a relatively simple method that can be done in many ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • 700 years old saint myth has been proven (almost) true
    Scientists confirm that the age and content of an old sack is in accordance with a medieval myth about Saint Francis of Assisi. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Our weight tells how we assess food
    A new study demonstrated that people of normal weight tend to associate natural foods such as apples with their sensory characteristics. On the other hand, processed foods such as pizzas are generally associated with their function or the context in which they are eaten. But that's not all. The research ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Residents: Frontline defenders against antibiotic resistance?
    Residents often decide which antibiotics to start a patient on so they could become the first line of defense against antibiotic resistance. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Strategy might prevent infections in patients with spinal cord injuries
    A new study sheds light on how to reduce the number of infections in patients with spinal cord injuries without using antibiotics. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Usher syndrome: Gene therapy restores hearing and balance
    Scientists have recently restored hearing and balance in a mouse model of Usher syndrome type 1G characterized by profound congenital deafness and vestibular disorders caused by severe dysmorphogenesis of the mechanoelectrical transduction apparatus of the inner ear's sensory cells. These findings open up new possibilities for the development of gene ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • A sustainable future powered by sea
    Researchers develop turbines to convert the power of ocean waves into clean, renewable energy. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Assembly of nanoparticles proceeds like a zipper
    It has always been the Holy Grail of materials science to describe and control the material's structure-function relationship. Nanoparticles are an attractive class of components to be used in functional materials because they exhibit size-dependent properties, such as superparamagnetism and plasmonic absorption of light. Furthermore, controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Stimuli fading away en route to consciousness
    Whether or not we consciously perceive the stimuli projected onto our retina is decided in our brain. A recent study shows how some signals dissipate along the processing path to conscious perception. This process begins at rather late stages of signal processing. By contrast, in earlier stages there is hardly ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Ancient textiles reveal differences in Mediterranean fabrics in the 1st millennium BC
    Analysis of Iron Age textiles indicates that during c. 1000-400 BC Italy shared the textile culture of Central Europe, while Greece was largely influenced by the traditions of ancient Near East. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Crowning the ‚king of the crops‘: Sequencing the white guinea yam genome
    Scientists have, for the first time, provided a genome sequence for the white Guinea yam, a staple crop with huge economic and cultural significance on the African continent and a lifeline for millions of people. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Winter cold extremes linked to high-altitude polar vortex weakening
    When the strong winds that circle the Arctic slacken, cold polar air can escape and cause extreme winter chills in parts of the Northern hemisphere. A new study finds that these weak states have become more persistent over the past four decades and can be linked to cold winters in ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Flint’s water crisis led to fewer babies and higher fetal death rates, researchers find
    An estimated 275 fewer children were born in Flint, Michigan, while the city was using lead-contaminated water from the Flint River, according to new research findings. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Breathing dirty air may harm kidneys
    Outdoor air pollution may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and contribute to kidney failure, say researchers. Scientists culled national VA databases to evaluate the effects of air pollution and kidney disease on nearly 2.5 million people over a period of 8.5 years, beginning in 2004. The scientists compared ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Effective help is available for migraine sufferers
    Although it’s the third most prevalent illness in the world, migraine is widely misunderstood and frequently undiagnosed. Until quite recently a common “remedy” for migraine was to lie in a dark room and wait for the pain to pass. But today there are treatments that work – and new medications ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Rainbow colors reveal cell history
    A system called “Beta-bow”, which allows the history of ?-cells to be traced by genetic bar-coding and multicolor imaging, has been developed by researchers. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Discovery of a new genetic syndrome which predisposes the body to cancer
    A new syndrome caused by biallelic mutations -- those produced in both gene copies inherited from the mother and father -- in the FANCM gene predisposes the body to the appearance of tumors and causes rejection to chemotherapy treatments. Contrary to what scientists believed, the gene does not cause Fanconi ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Improving techniques for joint defect treatment
    Different surface topographies and materials provide interesting ways to study cell behavior and potentially provide novel solutions for treating joint defects. Tissue engineering methods that simulate native cartilage could prove useful to create cartilage implants in the laboratory, according to new research. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Smartphone apps can reduce depression
    New research has confirmed that smartphone apps are an effective treatment option for depression, paving the way for safe and accessible interventions for the millions of people around the world diagnosed with this condition. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Party discipline for jumping genes
    Jumping genes, transposons, are part of the genome of most organisms, aggregated into families and can damage the genome by jumping. How hosts suppress the jumping is well investigated. Why they still can jump has hardly been understood so far. Researchers investigated for the first time in all transposons of ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Personality changes don’t precede clinical onset of Alzheimer’s, study shows
    No evidence has been found to support the idea that personality changes begin before the clinical onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, a new and comprehensive study reports. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Ultra-light aluminum: Chemist reports breakthrough in material design
    Chemists report a new, metastable, ultra-light crystalline form of aluminum has been computationally designed using density functional calculations with imposing periodic boundary conditions. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Artificial orchid cultivation kit
    Orchids are loved by gardeners around the world but are notoriously difficult to cultivate. Researchers have developed a new orchid cultivation kit and have succeeded in complete artificial cultivation of an autonomous orchid. Since this kit can be made cheaply, it can broaden the opportunities for orchid cultivation in general ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Quick test may speed antibiotic treatment, combat drug resistance
    Researchers have demonstrated a potential new tactic for rapidly determining whether an antibiotic combats a given infection, thus hastening effective medical treatment and limiting the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Their method can quickly sense mechanical fluctuations of bacterial cells and any changes induced by an antibiotic. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • The math of doughnuts: ‚Moonshine‘ sheds light on elliptic curves
    Mathematicians have opened a new chapter in the theory of moonshine, one which begins to harness the power of the pariahs -- sporadic simple groups that previously had no known application. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Positive, negative or neutral, it all matters: NASA explains space radiation
    Charged particles may be small, but they matter to astronauts. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is investigating these particles to solve one of its biggest challenges for a human journey to Mars: space radiation and its effects on the human body. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • To avoid starving, this bat varies its heart rate from 1000 to 200 beats per minute
    Unique strategy incorporates the best of sprinters and marathoners ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Top stories: Semen-dwelling viruses, password-guessing AI, and a trilobite-shaped corn maze
    This week’s top Science news ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Few authors choose anonymous peer review, massive study of <i>Nature</i> journals shows
    Scientists from developing countries and less prestigious institutes more often prefer reviewers to be blinded to their identity ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • This 300-million-year-old marine reptile had scoliosis
    Brazilian fossils reveal the oldest evidence of a vertebral malformation in an aquatic animal ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Cold atoms are being launched into space. This video reveals why
    Everything you need to know about the Bose-Einstein condensate ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Scientists grow bullish on pig-to-human transplants
    Progress in monkey testing buoys hopes for human trials ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Dueling preprint servers coming for the geosciences
    Sites promise to speed collaboration in discipline ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 22-09-2017
  • Being active saves lives whether a gym workout, walking to work or washing the floor
    Any activity is good for people to meet the current guideline of 30 minutes of activity a day, or 150 minutes a week to raise the heart rate, new research indicates. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 21-09-2017
  • Alternative splicing, an important mechanism for cancer
    Scientists discover several alterations in this cellular process with implications in cancer by analyzing samples from more than 4,000 patients. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 21-09-2017
  • Autonomous Vehicles Need to Make Psychological Inroads Before Widespread Adoption
    The technology to put autonomous vehicles on the road in large numbers is available, today. Manufacturers are pushing the accelerator—General Motors announced its readiness to mass-produce autonomous cars in mid-June. The US government is trying to keep pace, with the House Energy and Commerce Committee approving the SELF DRIVE Act ... read more
    Source: PsychologyVeröffentlicht am 21-09-2017
  • Preterm children have more medical sleep problems but fall asleep more independently
    A new study suggests that while healthy preterm children have more medical sleep problems than full-term children, they are more likely to fall asleep independently. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 21-09-2017
  • New technique accurately digitizes transparent objects
    A new imaging technique makes it possible to precisely digitize clear objects and their surroundings, an achievement that has eluded current state-of-the-art 3-D rendering methods. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 21-09-2017