Wissenschafts-Weblogs

  • Scientists dig into the origin of organics on dwarf planet Ceres
    Since NASA's Dawn spacecraft detected localized organic-rich material on Ceres, scientists have been digging into the data to explore different scenarios for its origin. After considering the viability of comet or asteroid delivery, the preponderance of evidence suggests the organics are most likely native to Ceres. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Obesity: Engineered proteins lower body weight in mice, rats and primates
    Researchers have created engineered proteins that lowered body weight, bloodstream insulin, and cholesterol levels in obese mice, rats, and primates. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Strong amplitude and phase modulation of optical spatial coherence with surface plasmon polaritons
    The degree of optical spatial coherence—a fundamental property of light that describes the mutual correlations between fluctuating electromagnetic fields—has been proven challenging to control at the micrometer scale. We use surface plasmon polaritons—evanescent waves excited on both surfaces of a thin metal film—as a means to mix the random fluctuations ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Accelerating metabolism and transmembrane cation flux by distorting red blood cells
    Under static conditions, mammalian red blood cells (RBCs) require a continuous supply of energy, typically via glucose, to maintain their biconcave disc shape. Mechanical distortion, in a complementary way, should lead to increased energy demand that is manifest in accelerated glycolysis. The experimental challenge in observing this phenomenon was met ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Abundance and local-scale processes contribute to multi-phyla gradients in global marine diversity
    Among the most enduring ecological challenges is an integrated theory explaining the latitudinal biodiversity gradient, including discrepancies observed at different spatial scales. Analysis of Reef Life Survey data for 4127 marine species at 2406 coral and rocky sites worldwide confirms that the total ecoregion richness peaks in low latitudes, near ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Identification of XBP1-u as a novel regulator of the MDM2/p53 axis using an shRNA library
    Cell cycle progression is a tightly controlled fundamental process in living cells, with any defects being closely linked to various abnormalities. The tumor suppressor p53/p21 axis is a core pathway controlling cell cycle progression; however, its regulatory mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In an effort to unravel this crucial ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Temporal variation in pelagic food chain length in response to environmental change
    Climate variability alters nitrogen cycling, primary productivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration in marine ecosystems. We examined the role of this variability (as measured by six variables) on food chain length (FCL) in the California Current (CC) by reconstructing a time series of amino acid–specific 15N values derived from common dolphins, ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Shaping highly regular glass architectures: A lesson from nature
    Demospongiae is a class of marine sponges that mineralize skeletal elements, the glass spicules, made of amorphous silica. The spicules exhibit a diversity of highly regular three-dimensional branched morphologies that are a paradigm example of symmetry in biological systems. Current glass shaping technology requires treatment at high temperatures. In this ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Upscaling species richness and abundances in tropical forests
    The quantification of tropical tree biodiversity worldwide remains an open and challenging problem. More than two-fifths of the number of worldwide trees can be found either in tropical or in subtropical forests, but only 0.000067% of species identities are known. We introduce an analytical framework that provides robust and accurate ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Comprehensive vaccine design for commensal disease progression
    Commensal organisms with the potential to cause disease pose a challenge in developing treatment options. Using the example featured in this study, pneumococcal disease begins with Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization, followed by triggering events that prompt the release of a virulent subpopulation of bacteria. Current vaccines focus on colonization prevention, which ... read more
    Source: Science Advances current issueVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Duplications of noncoding DNA may have affected evolution of human-specific traits
    Duplications of large segments of noncoding DNA in the human genome may have contributed to the emergence of differences between humans and nonhuman primates, according to new results. Identifying these duplications, which include regulatory sequences, and their effect on traits and behavior may help scientists explain genetic contributions to human ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Online resource enables open data sharing for rare Mendelian diseases
    MyGene2, a new open data resource, helps patients with rare genetic conditions, clinicians, and researchers share information, connect with one another, and enable faster gene discovery. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Understanding the coevolving web of life as a network
    Coevolution, which occurs when species interact and adapt to each other, is often studied in the context of pair-wise interactions between mutually beneficial symbiotic partners. But many species have mutualistic interactions with multiple partners, leading to complex networks of interacting species. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • New material for digital memories of the future
    Scientists have developed the first material with conductivity properties that can be switched on and off using ferroelectric polarization. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • At tremendous precision, the proton and antiproton still seem identical
    Using a novel two-particle measurement method, a group of researchers measured the magnetic moment of the antiproton at a precision 350 times higher than any previous measurement. The result shows that the magnetic moments of the proton and antiproton are tremendously close, meaning that so-called CPT asymmetry -- a key ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Nature or nurture? Innate social behaviors in the mouse brain
    The brain circuitry that controls innate, or instinctive, behaviors such as mating and fighting was thought to be genetically hardwired. Not so, neuroscientists now say. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Riddle of matter remains unsolved: Proton and antiproton share fundamental properties
    Physicists have been able to measure the magnetic force of antiprotons with almost unbelievable precision. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Inflammation trains the skin to heal faster
    Stem cells in the skin remember an injury, helping them close recurring wounds faster, researchers have found. The discovery could advance research and treatment of psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Petals produce a ‚blue halo‘ that helps bees find flowers
    Latest research has found that several common flower species have nanoscale ridges on the surface of their petals that meddle with light when viewed from certain angles. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Solar eruptions could electrify Martian moons
    Powerful solar eruptions could electrically charge areas of the Martian moon Phobos to hundreds of volts, presenting a complex electrical environment that could possibly affect sensitive electronics carried by future robotic explorers, according to a new NASA study. The study also considered electrical charges that could develop as astronauts transit ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • For $1000, anyone can purchase online ads to track your location and app use
    New research finds that for a budget of roughly $1000, it is possible for someone to track your location and app use by purchasing and targeting mobile ads. The team hopes to raise industry awareness about the potential privacy threat. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Analysis of China’s one-child policy sparks uproar
    Colleagues call demographer’s findings flawed and irresponsible ... read more
    Source: Latest News from Science MagazineVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Illinois sportfish recovery a result of 1972 Clean Water Act, scientists report
    Populations of largemouth bass, bluegill, catfish and other sportfish are at the highest levels recorded in more than a century in the Illinois River, according to a new report. Their dramatic recovery, from populations close to zero near Chicago throughout much of the 20th century, began just after implementation of ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • New findings explain how UV rays trigger skin cancer
    Melanoma, a cancer of skin pigment cells called melanocytes, will strike an estimated 87,110 people in the US in 2017, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A fraction of those melanomas come from pre-existing moles, but the majority of them come from sources unknown -- until now. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • DNA tests on albatross excrement reveal secret diet of top predator
    A study that used DNA tests to analyse the scats of one of the world's most numerous albatrosses has revealed surprising results about the top predator's diet. DNA analysis of 1460 scats from breeding sites around the Southern Ocean has shown that the diet of black-browed albatrosses contains a much ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Competing forces: How molecules maintain their structure
    A double helix twisted around itself: this is the distinctive structure of DNA, which is made up of large molecules. Using synthetically produced molecules, chemists and physicists have investigated the forces which are at work inside the molecule to give it its three-dimensional structure. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Ancient, lost, mountains in the Karoo reveals the secrets of massive extinction event
    A researcher studied the fossil-rich sediments present in the Karoo, deposited during the tectonic events that created the Gondwanides, and found that the vertebrate animals in the area started to either go extinct or become less common much earlier than what was previously thought. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Hardy corals make their moves to build new reefs from scratch
    Resilient species of coral can move to inhospitable areas and lay the foundations for new reefs, a study shows. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Dutch courage: Alcohol improves foreign language skills
    A new study shows that bilingual speakers' ability to speak a second language is improved after they have consumed a low dose of alcohol. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Death by a thousand cuts? Not for small populations
    New research provides a look at how certain species survive by evolving a greater ability to weed out harmful mutations -- a new concept called 'drift robustness'. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • One step closer toward a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease?
    Scientists have characterized a new class of drugs as potential therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease and discovered a piece in the puzzle of how they would work. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • New clues to treat Alagille Syndrome from zebrafish
    A new study identifies potential new therapeutic avenues for patients with Alagille syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations primarily in the JAGGED1 gene. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Stiff fibers spun from slime
    Nanoparticles from the secretion of velvet worms form recyclable polymer fibers. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Turning brain cells into skin cells
    A new study reveals that it is possible to repurpose the function of different mature cells across the body and harvest new tissue and organs from these cells. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Nanoelectronics breakthrough could lead to more efficient quantum devices
    Researchers have made a breakthrough that could help your electronic devices get even smarter. Their findings examine electron behavior within nanoelectronics, as outlined in a new article. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Mass killings happen randomly, yet rate has remained steady, study finds
    Mass killings may have increasing news coverage, but the events themselves have happened at a steady rate for more than a decade, according to a new study. Furthermore, some types of mass-killing events seem to occur randomly over time, making prediction difficult and response crucial. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Life in the city: Living near a forest keeps your amygdala healthier
    A new study examined the relationship between the availability of nature near city dwellers' homes and their brain health. Its findings are relevant for urban planners among others. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Cocaine use during adolescence is even more harmful than during adulthood
    Scientists found that addicts who began using cocaine before and after the age of 18 showed differences in sustained attention and working memory, among other brain functions. The research, made under controlled drug abstinence condition, measured cocaine's impact on more than a hundred drug users' cognition, and recommended multidisciplinary treatment ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Customizing catalysts to boost product yields, decrease separation costs
    For some crystalline catalysts, what you see on the surface is not always what you get in the bulk. Investigators discovered that treating a complex oxide crystal with either heat or chemicals caused different atoms to segregate on the surface, i.e., surface reconstruction. Those differences created catalysts with dissimilar behaviors, ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Reducing power plants‘ freshwater consumption with new silica filter
    Power plants draw more freshwater than any other consumer in the United States, accounting for more than 50 percent of the nation's freshwater use at about 500 billion gallons daily. To help save this water, researchers have developed a new silica filter for power plant cooling waters that decreases the ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • A mission to Mars could make its own oxygen thanks to plasma technology
    Plasma technology could hold the key to creating a sustainable oxygen supply on Mars, a new study has found. It suggests that Mars, with its 96 per cent carbon dioxide atmosphere, has nearly ideal conditions for creating oxygen from CO2 through a process known as decomposition. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Global calcium consumption appears low, especially in Asia
    A new systematic review of global daily calcium consumption suggests substantial regional differences -- it's lowest in East Asia and highest in Northern Europe. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Electrode materials from the microwave oven
    Power on the go is in demand: The higher the battery capacity, the larger the range of electric cars and the longer the operating time of cell phones and laptops. Researchers have now developed a process that allows a fast, simple, and cost-effective production of the promising cathode material lithium ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Potential human habitat located on the moon
    A new study confirms the existence of a large open lava tube in the Marius Hills region of the moon, which could be used to protect astronauts from hazardous conditions on the surface. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Force field analysis provides clues to protein-ion interaction
    The importance of proteins and metal ion interactions is well understood, but the mechanistic interactions between the two are still far from a complete picture. Researchers are working to quantitatively describe protein-ion interactions using what is called an atomic multipole optimized energetics for biomolecular applications force field. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • The drop that’s good to the very end
    Two researchers, using laser-flash photography of microscopic droplet-particle collisions, have discovered that water droplets still have liquid tricks to reveal. Previous research has primarily examined droplet collisions with flat surfaces, such as a wall, but this research team examined the less studied case of a droplet having a head-on collision ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Active sieving could improve dialysis and water purification filters
    Physicists have proven theoretically that active sieving, as opposed to its passive counterpart, can improve the separation abilities of filtration systems. Active sieving also has the potential to filter molecules based on movement dynamics, opening up a whole new avenue in the field of membrane science based on the ability ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Origami lattice paves the way for new noise-dampening barriers on the road
    Researchers have brought a new method into the sound-dampening fold, demonstrating an origami lattice prototype that can potentially reduce acoustic noise on roadways. The technique allows researchers to selectively dampen noise at various frequencies by adjusting the distance between noise-diffusing elements. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • The puzzle to plugging the worst natural gas release in history
    By the time scientists visited the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility in December 2015, the SS-25 well blowout had been leaking natural gas into the air for more than six weeks. The notoriously strong winds at Aliso Canyon carried the natural gas and its added odorant to the nearby ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017
  • Workers may ‚choke‘ under pressure of non-monetary incentives
    Competition for non-monetary awards can have adverse effects on performance and may cause employees to “choke” under pressure, according to a new study. ... read more
    Source: Science dailyVeröffentlicht am 18-10-2017